Formula reference

Calcapp supports close to 400 formula functions. Read our guide to learn more.

Color functions

ALPHA Returns the alpha value from the given color.
BLUE Returns the blue color component from the given color according to the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Red-Green-Blue-Alpha (RGBA) color models.
BRIGHTEN Brightens the given color by a specified amount.
BRIGHTNESS Returns the brightness from the given color according to the Hue-Saturation-Brightness (HSB) and Hue-Saturation-Brightness-Alpha (HSBA) color models.
COLOR Returns a color based on the given parameter.
COLORSPIN Returns a color whose hue has been changed by the given amount.
DARKEN Darkens the given color by a specified amount.
DEFAULTCOLOR Returns a special color value instructing Calcapp to use a default value for a color, regardless of whether there is a color which can be inherited.
DESATURATE Desaturates the given color by a specified amount.
DIM Dims the given color by a specified amount.
GREEN Returns the green color component from the given color according to the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Red-Green-Blue-Alpha (RGBA) color models.
HSB Returns a color based on the given color components according to the Hue-Saturation-Brightness (HSB) color model, also known as the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV) color model.
HSBA Returns a color based on the given color components according to the Hue-Saturation-Brightness-Alpha (HSBA) color model, also known as the Hue-Saturation-Value-Alpha (HSVA) color model.
HSBSATURATION Returns the saturation from the given color according to the Hue-Saturation-Brightness (HSB) and Hue-Saturation-Brightness-Alpha (HSBA) color models.
HSL Returns a color based on the given color components according to the Hue-Saturation-Lightness (HSL) color model.
HSLA Returns a color based on the given color components according to the Hue-Saturation-Lightness-Alpha (HSLA) color model.
HSLSATURATION Returns the saturation from the given color according to the Hue-Saturation-Lightness (HSL) and Hue-Saturation-Lightness-Alpha (HSLA) color models.
HUE Returns the hue from the given color according to the Hue-Saturation-Brightness (HSB), Hue-Saturation-Brightness-Alpha (HSBA), Hue-Saturation-Lightness (HSL) and Hue-Saturation-Lightness-Alpha (HSLA) color models.
LIGHTEN Lightens the given color by a specified amount.
LIGHTNESS Returns the lightness from the given color according to the Hue-Saturation-Lightness (HSL) and Hue-Saturation-Lightness-Alpha (HSLA) color models.
RED Returns the red color component from the given color according to the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Red-Green-Blue-Alpha (RGBA) color models.
RGB Returns a color based on the given color components according to the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color model.
RGBA Returns a color based on the given color components according to the Red-Green-Blue-Alpha (RGBA) color model.
SATURATE Saturates the given color by a specified amount.

Compatibility functions

BETADIST This function is a compatibility alias for BETA.DIST.
BETAINV This function is a compatibility alias for BETA.INV.
BINOMDIST This function is a compatibility alias for BINOM.DIST.
CHIDIST This function is a compatibility alias for CHISQ.DIST.
CHIINV This function is a compatibility alias for CHISQ.INV.
CONFIDENCE This function is a compatibility alias for CONFIDENCE.NORM.
COVAR This function is a compatibility alias for COVARIANCE.P.
CRITBINOM This function is a compatibility alias for BINOM.INV.
EXPONDIST This function is a compatibility alias for EXPON.DIST.
GAMMADIST This function is a compatibility alias for GAMMA.DIST.
GAMMAINV This function is a compatibility alias for GAMMA.INV.
HYPGEOMDIST This function is a compatibility alias for HYPGEOM.DIST.
LOGINV This function is a compatibility alias for LOGNORM.INV.
LOGNORMDIST This function is a compatibility alias for LOGNORM.DIST.
MODE This function is a compatibility alias for MODE.SNGL.
NEGBINOMDIST This function is a compatibility alias for NEGBINOM.DIST.
NORMDIST This function is a compatibility alias for NORM.DIST.
NORMINV This function is a compatibility alias for NORM.INV.
NORMSDIST This function is a compatibility alias for NORM.S.DIST.
NORMSINV This function is a compatibility alias for NORM.S.INV.
PERCENTILE This function is a compatibility alias for PERCENTILE.INC.
PERCENTRANK This function is a compatibility alias for PERCENTRANK.INC.
POISSON This function is a compatibility alias for POISSON.DIST.
QUARTILE This function is a compatibility alias for QUARTILE.INC.
RANK This function is a compatibility alias for RANK.EQ.
STDEV This function is a compatibility alias for STDEV.S.
STDEVP This function is a compatibility alias for STDEV.P.
TDIST This function is a compatibility alias for T.DIST.
TINV This function is a compatibility alias for T.INV.
VAR This function is a compatibility alias for VAR.S.
VARP This function is a compatibility alias for VAR.P.
WEIBULL This function is a compatibility alias for WEIBULL.DIST.
ZTEST This function is a compatibility alias for Z.TEST.

Date and time functions

DATE Returns a sequential serial number representing the given year, month and day.
DAY Converts a given date to a number representing the day of the date.
DAYS Returns the number of days between two dates.
DAYS360 Returns the number of days between two dates.
EDATE Returns a date advanced or set back a number of months.
EOMONTH Returns a date representing the last day of a particular month, potentially set back or advanced a number of months.
HOUR Converts a date to a number representing the hour of the date.
ISOWEEKNUM Returns the ISO week number of the given date, from 1 through 54.
MINUTE Converts a date to a number representing the minute of the date.
MONTH Converts a date to a number representing the month of the date.
NETWORKDAYS Returns the number of working days between two dates.
NETWORKDAYS.INTL Returns the number of working days between two dates.
NOW Returns the current date and time.
SECOND Converts a date to a number representing the second of the date.
TIME Returns a sequential serial number representing the given hour, minute and second.
TODAY Returns the current date, with the time set to midnight.
WEEKDAY Returns the day of the week of the given date.
WEEKNUM Converts a date to a number representing the week number of the date.
WORKDAY Returns a date advanced or set back a number of working days.
WORKDAY.INTL Returns a date advanced or set back a number of working days.
YEAR Converts a date to a number representing the year of the date.
YEARFRAC Returns the number of years between the two given dates, as a decimal number.

Engineering functions

BESSELI Calculates the modified Bessel function of the first kind.
BESSELJ Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind.
BESSELK Calculates the modified Bessel function of the second kind.
BESSELY Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind (the Neumann or Weber function).
BIN2DEC Converts a binary number to a decimal number.
BIN2HEX Converts a binary number to a hexadecimal number.
BIN2OCT Converts a binary number to an octal number.
BITAND Performs a bitwise AND operation.
BITLSHIFT Shifts a number left by the specified number of bits.
BITOR Performs a bitwise OR operation.
BITRSHIFT Shifts a number right by the specified number of bits.
BITXOR Performs a bitwise XOR operation.
COMPLEX Returns a complex number as text.
CONVERT Converts the given number from one unit to another.
DEC2BIN Converts a decimal number to a binary number.
DEC2HEX Converts a decimal number to a hexadecimal number.
DEC2OCT Converts a decimal number to an octal number.
DELTA Returns 1 if both parameters are equal and 0 otherwise.
ERF Returns the Gauss error function calculated between 0 and an upper bound.
ERFC Returns the complementary Gauss error function calculated between a lower bound and infinity.
GESTEP Returns 1 if a number is greater than or equal to a step number, or 0 otherwise.
HEX2BIN Converts a hexadecimal number to a binary number.
HEX2DEC Converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal number.
HEX2OCT Converts a hexadecimal number to an octal number.
IMABS Returns the absolute value of a complex number.
IMAGINARY Returns the imaginary part of a complex number.
IMARGUMENT Returns the argument of a complex number.
IMCONJUGATE Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number.
IMCOS Returns the cosine of a complex number.
IMCOSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number.
IMCOT Returns the cotangent of a complex number.
IMDIV Returns the result of dividing one complex number by another.
IMEXP Returns Euler's constant e raised to a complex number.
IMLN Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number (using Euler's constant e as its base).
IMLOG10 Returns the base ten logarithm of a complex number.
IMLOG2 Returns the base two logarithm of a complex number.
IMPOWER Raises a complex number to an exponent and returns the result.
IMPRODUCT Returns the product of the given complex numbers.
IMREAL Returns the real part of a complex number.
IMSEC Returns the secant of a complex number.
IMSECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number.
IMSIN Returns the sine of a complex number.
IMSINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number.
IMSQRT Returns the square root of a complex number.
IMSUB Returns the difference between two complex numbers.
IMSUM Returns the sum of the given complex numbers.
IMTAN Returns the tangent of a complex number.
OCT2BIN Converts an octal number to a binary number.
OCT2DEC Converts an octal number to a decimal number.
OCT2HEX Converts an octal number to a hexadecimal number.

Financial functions

CUMIPMT Returns the total interest paid on a loan in specified periodic payments.
CUMPRINC Returns the total capital repaid on a loan in specified periodic payments.
DB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a given year using the fixed rate declining-balance method.
DDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a given year using the double declining-balance method (or any other factor).
DOLLARDE Converts a fractional number representation of a number into a decimal number.
DOLLARFR Converts a decimal number into a fractional representation of that number.
EFFECT Returns the effective compounded interest rate given a nominal interest rate.
FV Returns the future value of an initial sum with a subsequent stream of payments.
FVSCHEDULE Returns the future value of a lump sum, with changing future interest rates.
IPMT Returns the portion of the periodic payment which is interest for a fixed rate loan or annuity.
IRR Calculates the internal rate of return of a series of cash flows.
ISPMT Returns the interest paid in a period for a fixed-rate loan.
MIRR Returns the modified internal rate of return of a series of cash flows.
NOMINAL Returns a nominal interest rate given the effective compounded interest rate.
NPER Returns the number of payment periods for an annuity.
NPV Returns the net present value of an investment with regular cash payments.
PDURATION Returns the number of periods required by an investment to realize a desired value.
PMT Returns the payment per period for a fixed-rate loan.
PPMT Returns the portion of the periodic payment which is repaid capital for a fixed-rate loan or annuity.
PV Returns the present value of a stream of future payments with a final lump sum.
RATE Returns the interest rate of an annuity.
RRI Returns an equivalent interest rate when an investment increases in value.
SLN Returns the depreciation of an asset in a single period using the straight-line depreciation method.
SYD Returns the depreciation of an asset for a given year using the sum of the years' digits method.
TBILLEQ Returns the bond-equivalent-yield (BEY) for a US Treasury bill.
TBILLPRICE Returns the issue price for a US Treasury bill, per $100 face value, given a discount rate.
TBILLYIELD Returns the yield for a US Treasury bill.
XIRR Calculates the internal rate of return of a series of irregular cash flows.
XNPV Returns the net present value of an investment with irregular cash payments.

Information functions

BLANK Returns a blank value.
ERROR.TYPE Returns the error type of the given value.
ISBLANK Returns whether the given value is blank.
ISDEFINED Returns whether the given value is defined.
ISEMPTY Returns whether the given array is empty.
ISERR Returns whether the given value is an error but is not an #N/A error ("not available").
ISERROR Returns whether the given value is an error.
ISEVEN Returns whether the given number is even.
ISNA Returns whether the given value is an #N/A error ("not available").
ISNONTEXT Returns whether the given value is not a text value.
ISODD Returns whether the given number is odd.
N Converts a value to a number.
NA Returns an #N/A error ("not available").
SIZE Returns the size of the given array, that is, the number of elements that are contained in the array.
TOCOLOR Returns the given value converted to a color.
TOLOGICAL Returns the given value converted to a logical value.
TONUMBER Returns the given value converted to a number.
TOTEXT Returns the given value converted to a text string.
TYPE Returns the type of the given value.
USERHASTAG Returns whether the user who is currently signed in has the given tag.

Logical functions

AND Returns TRUE if all parameters are TRUE and FALSE otherwise.
FALSE Returns FALSE.
IF Returns one of the given values based on logical conditions.
IFBLANK Returns a value unchanged if it is not blank and a different value otherwise.
IFERROR Returns a value unchanged if it is not an error and a different value otherwise.
IFNA Returns a value unchanged if it is not an #N/A (not available) error and a different value otherwise.
IFS Returns one of the given values based on logical conditions.
NOT Negates the logical parameter and returns it.
OR Returns TRUE if one or more values are TRUE and FALSE otherwise.
SWITCH Tests a given parameter for equality against a list of parameters and returns a parameter associated with the parameter which matched the first parameter.
TRUE Returns TRUE.
XOR Returns TRUE if an odd number of parameters are TRUE and FALSE otherwise.

Lookup functions

CHOOSE Returns a given parameter based on its numeric position and the value of the first parameter.
FILTER Filters the first array using the second parameter.
INDEX Returns the array element at the given position.
MAP Applies the transformation specified by the given formula fragment to all array elements and returns the resulting array.
MATCH Returns the position that a given value appears at in the given lookup array, or returns an #N/A error if the value cannot be found.
REDUCE Reduces an array of values to a single value using a user-supplied formula.
REVERSEARRAY Reverses the given array and returns it.
SORT Sorts and returns the given array.
SORTBY Sorts and returns a given array, where the sort order is based on sort arrays given to this function.
UNIQUE Returns a version of the given array with all duplicate values removed.
XLOOKUP Returns the array element in the second array with the same position as an element in the first array which is equal to a given value.
XMATCH Returns the position that a given value appears at in the given lookup array, or returns an #N/A error if the value cannot be found.

Math functions

ABS Returns the absolute value of a number.
ARABIC Returns an Arabic numeral converted from a Roman numeral.
BASE Returns a text representation of a number converted to a certain base (radix).
CEILING Returns a number rounded up to the nearest multiple of another number.
CEILING.MATH Returns a number rounded up to the nearest multiple of another number.
COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a certain number of items.
COMBINA Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a certain number of items.
DECIMAL Converts a textual representation of a number in a given base to a decimal number.
DEGREES Converts the angle given in radians to degrees.
EVEN Rounds a given number up to the nearest even number.
EXP Returns the mathematical constant e raised to a given number.
FACT Returns the factorial of a number, denoted n!.
FACTDOUBLE Returns the double factorial of a number, denoted n!!.
FLOOR Returns a number rounded down to the nearest multiple of another number.
FLOOR.MATH Returns a number rounded down to the nearest multiple of another number.
GCD Returns the greatest common divisor of a set of numbers.
INT Returns a truncated version of a number, in effect rounding it down to the nearest integer.
LCM Returns the least common multiple of a set of numbers.
LN Returns the natural logarithm of a number (using Euler's number—the mathematical constant e—as its base).
LOG Returns the logarithm of a number using a custom base.
LOG10 Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number.
MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of the given matrix.
MINVERSE Returns the inverse matrix of the given matrix.
MMULT Returns the matrix product of the given matrices.
MOD Returns the remainder after an integer division operation.
MROUND Returns a number rounded to a multiple of another number.
MULTINOMIAL Returns the factorial of the sum of a set of numbers divided by the product of the factorials of the same numbers.
MUNIT Returns the unit matrix for the given dimension.
ODD Rounds a given number up to the nearest odd number.
PI Returns the mathematical constant pi, π.
POWER Raises a number to the power of another number.
PRODUCT Returns the product of the provided values (multiplied together).
PRODUCTIF Returns the product of the array elements that satisfy a condition (multiplying them together).
PRODUCTIFS Returns the product of all array elements which satisfy one or several conditions (multiplying them together).
QUOTIENT Returns the integer (whole number) portion of a division.
RADIANS Converts the angle given in degrees to radians.
RAND Returns a random number between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
RANDARRAY Returns an array with random numbers.
RANDBETWEEN Returns a random integer (whole number) between two given numbers.
ROMAN Returns a Roman number converted from an Arabic numeral.
ROUND Returns a number rounded to a certain precision.
ROUNDDOWN Returns a number rounded down to a certain precision.
ROUNDUP Returns a number rounded up to a certain precision.
SEQUENCE Returns an array containing a sequence of numbers.
SIGN Returns 0 if a number is zero, -1 if it is negative and 1 if it is positive.
SQRT Returns the square root of a number.
SQRTPI Returns the square root of a number multiplied by pi, π.
SUM Returns the sum of the provided values (added together).
SUMIF Returns the sum of the array elements that satisfy a condition (adding them together).
SUMIFS Returns the sum of all array elements which satisfy one or several conditions (adding them together).
SUMPRODUCT Multiplies all the given arrays together and returns the sum of products.
SUMSQ Squares a set of numbers and returns the sum of all squares.
SUMX2MY2 Returns the sum of the differences between the corresponding squared elements of the given two arrays.
SUMX2PY2 Returns the sum of the squares of all elements of the given two arrays.
SUMXMY2 Returns the sum of the squared differences between the corresponding elements of the given two arrays.
TRUNC Returns a number truncated to a certain precision.

Operators

+ Addition Adds two numbers together and returns the result.
| Array concatenation Joins together two arrays, or joins a value to an array, and returns the result.
/ Division Divides one number by another and returns the result.
-- Double negation Returns 0 if the given operand is FALSE, 1 if it is TRUE and the operand unchanged if is a number.
= Equality Returns whether the first value is equal to the second value.
^ Exponentiation Raises a number to the power of a second number.
> Greater than Returns whether the first value is greater than the second value.
>= Greater than or equal to Returns whether the first value is greater than or equal to the second value.
<> Inequality Returns whether the first value is not equal to the second value.
< Less than Returns whether the first value is less than the second value.
<= Less than or equal to Returns whether the first value is less than or equal to the second value.
&& Logical and Returns TRUE if both values are TRUE and FALSE otherwise.
! Logical negation Negates the logical value, turning TRUE into FALSE and FALSE into TRUE.
|| Logical or Returns TRUE if one or both values are TRUE and FALSE otherwise.
* Multiplication Multiplies two numbers together and returns the result.
% Percentage Divides the number by 100.
== Simple equality Returns whether the first value is equal to the second value.
!= Simple inequality Returns whether the first value is not equal to the second value.
- Subtraction Subtracts one number from another and returns the result.
& Text concatenation Joins two values together as a single text string and returns it.

Statistical functions

AVEDEV Returns the average of the absolute deviations of values from their mean.
AVERAGE Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the parameters.
AVERAGEA Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the parameters.
AVERAGEIF Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the array elements that satisfy a condition.
AVERAGEIFS Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all array elements which satisfy one or several conditions.
BETA.DIST Returns the cumulative distribution function or the probability density function of a beta distribution.
BETA.INV Returns the inverse of the BETA.DIST function.
BINOM.DIST Returns a probability for a binomial distribution.
BINOM.DIST.RANGE Returns the probability for a binomial distribution over an interval.
BINOM.INV Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.
CHISQ.DIST Returns a value for a chi-squared distribution.
CHISQ.INV Returns the inverse of the CHISQ.DIST function.
CONFIDENCE.NORM Returns a confidence interval for a normal distribution.
CONFIDENCE.T Returns a confidence interval for a Student's t-distribution.
CORREL Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of two sets of data.
COUNT Returns the number of values which can be interpreted as numbers.
COUNTA Returns the number of values which are not blank.
COUNTBLANK Returns the number of elements of the given array which are either blank or are equal to the empty text string.
COUNTIF Returns the number of array elements which satisfy a condition.
COUNTIFS Returns the number of array elements which satisfy one or several conditions.
COVARIANCE.P Returns the population covariance, that is, the covariance of the product of paired deviations, for an entire population.
COVARIANCE.S Returns the sample covariance, that is, the covariance of the product of paired deviations, for a sample of the population.
DEVSQ Returns the sum of squares of deviations from the mean.
EXPON.DIST Returns a value for an exponential distribution.
FISHER Returns a value for the Fisher transformation.
FISHERINV Returns the inverse of the FISHER function.
FORECAST Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns the vertical coordinate of a point on that line.
FREQUENCY Returns the frequency distribution of the values of the first array when grouped into the intervals of the second array.
GAMMA Returns the values of the Gamma function.
GAMMA.DIST Returns a value for a Gamma distribution.
GAMMA.INV Returns the inverse of the cumulative GAMMA.DIST function.
GAMMALN Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function.
GAMMALN.PRECISE Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function.
GAUSS Returns a value in the standard normal cumulative distribution.
GEOMEAN Returns the geometric mean of the parameters.
GROWTH Returns the points of an exponential curve of the form y = b * m ^ x through the given data points using linear regression.
HARMEAN Returns the harmonic mean of the given values.
HYPGEOM.DIST Returns a value for a hypergeometric distribution.
INTERCEPT Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns its intercept on the vertical axis.
KURT Returns a measure of how peaked or flat a distribution is (the kurtosis) based on the given parameters.
LARGE Returns the nth largest number in the given array, where n is given as the second parameter.
LINEST Finds a straight line, y = m * x + b, that best fits the given data, and returns an array containing two values corresponding to m and b in the equation above.
LOGNORM.DIST Returns a value for the cumulative distribution function of a lognormal distribution.
LOGNORM.INV Returns the inverse of the LOGNORM.DIST function.
MAX Returns the largest number of the given numbers.
MAXA Returns the largest number of the given numbers.
MAXIFS Returns the largest number of all array elements which satisfy one or several conditions.
MEDIAN Returns the median of the given numbers.
MIN Returns the smallest number of the given numbers.
MINA Returns the smallest number of the given numbers.
MINIFS Returns the smallest number of all array elements which satisfy one or several conditions.
MODE.MULT Returns the values that appear most frequently.
MODE.SNGL Returns the value that appears most frequently.
NEGBINOM.DIST Returns a probability for a negative binomial distribution.
NORM.DIST Returns a value for a normal distribution.
NORM.INV Returns the inverse of the cumulative NORM.DIST function.
NORM.S.DIST Returns a value for the cumulative distribution function of a normal distribution.
NORM.S.INV Returns the inverse of the cumulative NORM.S.DIST function.
PEARSON Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of two sets of data.
PERCENTILE.EXC Returns the number of the given array at the kth percentile, where k is a number between 0 and 1 (exclusive), which can also be specified with the % operator (.
PERCENTILE.INC Returns the number of the given array at the kth percentile, where k is a number between 0 and 1 (inclusive), which can also be specified with the % operator (.
PERCENTRANK.EXC Returns the percentile rank of a number in an array.
PERCENTRANK.INC Returns the percentile rank of a number in an array.
PERMUT Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects, where an object can only be chosen once.
PERMUTATIONA Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects, where objects can be repeated.
PHI Returns a value for a standard normal distribution.
POISSON.DIST Returns a value for a Poisson distribution.
PROB Returns the probability that a value is inside a given interval.
QUARTILE.EXC Returns the number of the given array at the given quartile value.
QUARTILE.INC Returns the number of the given array at the given quartile value.
RANK.AVG Returns the rank of the given number in the given number array.
RANK.EQ Returns the rank of the given number in the given number array.
RSQ Returns the square of the Pearson correlation coefficient of two sets of data.
SERIESSUM Returns the sum of the first terms of a power series.
SKEW Returns a measure of how skewed a distribution is, represented by the given parameters.
SKEW.P Returns a measure of how skewed a distribution is based on a population.
SLOPE Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns its slope.
SMALL Returns the nth smallest number in the given array, where n is given as the second parameter.
STANDARDIZE Converts a value in a normal distribution to its equivalent in a standard normal distribution.
STDEV.P Returns the population standard deviation of the parameters.
STDEV.S Returns the sample standard deviation of the parameters.
STDEVA Returns the sample standard deviation of the parameters.
STDEVPA Returns the population standard deviation of the parameters.
STEYX Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns the standard error of the actual vertical coordinates compared to the vertical coordinates of the straight line.
T.DIST Returns a value for Student's left-tailed t-distribution.
T.INV Returns the inverse of the left-tailed T.DIST function.
TRIMMEAN Returns the mean (average) of the given values, ignoring a percentage of array elements at the beginning and end of the given array.
VAR.P Returns the population variance of the parameters.
VAR.S Returns the sample variance of the parameters.
VARA Returns the sample variance of the parameters.
VARPA Returns the population variance of the parameters.
WEIBULL.DIST Returns a value for a Weibull distribution.
Z.TEST Returns the one-tailed cumulative probability value of a Z-test.

Text functions

CHAR Returns a single text character, identified by a Unicode code point.
CHARAT Returns the character at the given position.
CLEAN Cleans text from certain non-printable characters and returns it.
CODE Returns the Unicode code point for the first character of the given text string.
CONCAT Joins any number of values together as a single text string and returns it.
CONCATENATE Joins any number of values together as a single text string and returns it.
CONTAINS Returns whether a text string contains another text string.
ENDSWITH Returns whether a text string ends with another text string.
EXACT Returns whether the two text strings are identical, in terms of content and in terms of case.
FIND Finds a text string nestled within another text string and returns its position.
FIXED Returns a number as text with a specified format.
FORMATDATE Returns a date as text.
FORMATFRACTION Returns a number as text, formatted as an integer followed by a fraction (a denominator, a division symbol and a numerator).
FORMATNUMBER Returns a number as text.
FORMATPERCENTAGE Returns a number as text, representing a percentage.
FORMATSCIENTIFIC Returns a number formatted using scientific notation.
FORMATTIME Returns a time as text.
ISEMAIL Returns whether the given text string is probably an email address.
LEFT Returns text from the left side of a text string.
LEN Returns the length of a text string.
LOWER Converts all upper-case letters in a text string to lower-case letters and returns the converted string.
MID Returns text from any part of a text string, effectively returning a substring.
NEWLINE Returns a line break character, which causes the character following it to appear on the next line.
PARSEDATE Interprets a text string as a date and returns it.
PARSEFRACTION Interprets a text string as a number and returns it, where the text string is expected to contain a fraction (a denominator, a division symbol and a numerator), optionally preceded by an integer.
PARSENUMBER Interprets a text string as a number and returns it.
PARSEPERCENTAGE Interprets a text string as a percentage and returns it.
PARSESCIENTIFIC Interprets a text string as a number and returns it, where said text string is expected to use scientific notation.
PARSETIME Interprets a text string as a time and returns it.
PROPER Returns a version of the given text string using "proper" capitalization.
REGEXEXTRACT Extracts the parts of a text string identified by a JavaScript regular expression and returns the extracted text.
REGEXEXTRACTALL Extracts the parts of a text string identified by a JavaScript regular expression and returns an array with the extracted text.
REGEXMATCH Returns whether a given text string matches a JavaScript regular expression.
REGEXREPLACE Replaces the parts of a text string that match a JavaScript regular expression and returns the result.
REGEXSPLIT Divides a text string into parts using a regular expression as a delimiter, returning the parts as an array.
REPLACE Replaces a part of a text string with a different text string and returns the result.
REPT Repeats a given text string a certain number of times and returns it.
REVERSE Reverses the given text string and returns it.
RIGHT Returns text from the right side of a text string.
SEARCH Finds a text string nestled within another text string and returns its position.
STARTSWITH Returns whether a text string starts with another text string.
SUBSTITUTE Substitutes new text for old text in a text string and returns it.
TEXTJOIN Joins a number of values together, separating them with a delimiter, and returns the resulting text string.
TEXTSPLIT Divides a text string into parts using a delimiter, returning the parts as an array.
TRIM Removes any excess whitespace characters (such as space characters) from a text string and returns the modified text string.
UNICHAR Returns a single text character, identified by a Unicode code point.
UNICODE Returns the Unicode code point for the first character of the given text string.
UPPER Converts all lower-case letters in a text string to upper-case letters and returns the converted string.

Trigonometry functions

ACOS Returns the inverse trigonometric cosine of a number.
ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
ACOT Returns the inverse trigonometric cotangent of a number.
ACOTH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a number.
ASIN Returns the inverse trigonometric sine of a number.
ASINH Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
ATAN Returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of a number.
ATAN2 Returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of two coordinates.
ATANH Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
COS Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle.
COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
COT Returns the trigonometric cotangent of an angle.
COTH Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number.
CSC Returns the cosecant of an angle.
CSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a number.
SEC Returns the secant of an angle.
SECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of a number.
SIN Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle.
SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
TAN Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle.
TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.